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30 Industrial Laser Solutions MAY/JUNE 2015 www.industrial-lasers.com
formation with and without laser clean-
ing [ 9]. Clearly, with all three laser welding
parameters, laser cleaning has significantly
reduced porosity and achieved less than
1% porosity in all cases.
The described laser cleaning/weld-ing technology has now been practically
implemented for automotive production
at Jaguar and Land Rover in the UK. The
scientific findings provide increased confidence and understanding in introducing
the laser welding technology for welding
the Al alloy.
The research has clearly demonstrated the benefit in introducing laser cleaning in improving the quality (reducing porosity) in
laser welding of Al alloys, and the technology is practically implemented in industry. It is worth noting that although laser cleaning
has played a critical role in reducing welding porosity in welding
thin Al alloys, it may not be so effective for welding thick-section Al
alloys, as porosity may be dominated by the keyhole effect rather
than surface oxide and contaminations.
The work was carried out at The University
of Manchester by PhD student Ahmad
Alshaer, who was funded by the Syria gov-
ernment and collaborated with Jaguar
and Land Rover. He was supervised by
Professor Lin Li from The University of
Manchester and Mr. Anil Mistry from Jaguar
and Land Rover.
1. C. E. Ransley and H. Neufeld, Metall. Trans. A, 20, 9, 1785–
2. H. Zhao, D. R. White, and T. DebRoy, Int. Mat. Rev., 44, 6,
3. J. Blackburn, C. Allen, P. Hilton, and L. Li, J. Laser Appl., 22,
2, 71–78 (2010).
4. E. Blackburn et al., Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 15, 5, 433–439
5. J. Blackburn, C. M. Allen, A. Khan, P. A. Hilton, and L. Li,
Laser. Eng., 22, 5-6, 319–336 (2012).
6. M. W. Turner, P. L. Crouse and L. Li, Appl. Surf. Sci., 253, 19, 7992–7997 (2007).
7. A. W. Alshaer, L. Li, and A. Mistry, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137, 021011-1 (2015).
8. A. W. Alshaer, L. Li, and A. Mistry, “The effect of filler wire types on porosity formation in laser
welding of AC-170PX aluminum alloy for automotive component manufacture,” Proc. IMechE,
Part B, J. Eng. Manufacture, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0954405415578584 (Apr. 7, 2015).
9. A. W. Alshaer, L. Li, and A. Mistry, Opt. Laser Technol., 64, 162–171 (2014).
LIN LI ( email@example.com) is the director of Laser Processing Research Centre
at the School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering at The University of
Manchester, Manchester, England.
FIGURE 4. A comparison of porosity level
in laser welds with and without laser
cleaning [ 9].